If the results of such gynecological studies, such as a pap test and colposcopy, showed the presence of pathology in the patient, the doctor prescribes an analysis of the tissue of the cervix. This organ is located between the intestines and the bladder. It is important to understand how a biopsy is performed, what it is. With the help of the procedure, the doctor accurately diagnoses the presence of a cancer in a woman and selects effective therapy. A cervical biopsy is a puncture of one small or several pieces of tissue for further research.
Indications for biopsy
The procedure is often prescribed for dysplasia, erosion and ectopia. Most clinics use the cauterization method only after taking the biomaterial. If the results of the pap test and cytology colposcopy were positive, there is no need to take a puncture. An analysis of oncology is done if there are suspicions of any negative changes in the organ. Indications for biopsy may include:
- suspicious changes in the organ during colposcopy, for example, iodine-negative zones (areas that did not turn brown after treatment with iodine), acetabular tissues, atypical vessels, and others;
- negative smear results for cytology.
The list of reasons why women may be contraindicated to take an analysis is not numerous. Contraindications are due to the presence of pathologies of the reproductive system and the patient’s body. The main prohibition on biopsy is poor blood coagulation. Taking tissue from the cervix is a minor surgical procedure, but the procedure can cause severe uterine bleeding. This reaction of the body is due to the presence in the body of a large number of small vessels, as features of the endometrium (uterine mucosa). Don’t do a biopsy:
- in the presence of acute inflammation in the body of a woman;
- patients with sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, HPV, others);
- during pregnancy.
Types of Biopsy
The best outcome of the procedure is the complete removal of suspicious tissue of the cervix (if the lesion occupies a small area of the organ). In other cases, it is required to take a puncture from different parts of the organ, which implies cutting 2-3 samples in one procedure. Depending on the individual characteristics of the patient’s body, the doctor uses one of the existing types of biopsy:
1. Sighting (colposcopic). Using a special colposcope tool, which is tweezers, a small piece of tissue is taken. The wound heals completely within 4-5 days after the procedure.
2. Loop (radio wave). A painless method of taking analysis, which is carried out using a special apparatus. The patient does not need further rehabilitation.
3. Knife (cononization). The tissue is taken by means of a hardware wedge-shaped excision of a tissue fragment. The method is used not only for diagnosis, but also for the treatment of pathological areas (their removal).
A biopsy of the uterine neck requires a preliminary series of tests (blood tests for HIV, RV, hepatitis, smears for infections). If there are no contraindications to the procedure, the woman signs a consent to the operation. The patient is obliged to tell the doctor about her allergic reactions to iodine, medicines, latex, if any. In addition, it is necessary to notify the doctor about pregnancy. To reduce the risk of complications after the procedure, it is worth using the recommendations of gynecologists:
- don’t inject any drugs into the vagina 2-3 days before surgery;
- refrain from sex a couple of days before analysis;
- do not use tampons, refuse douching;
- take a shower on the eve of the procedure;
- don’t eat anything 8-10 hours before the procedure;
- wait for the 7-13th day of the menstrual cycle (the count starts from the first day of your period) – this is the most favorable time for taking a puncture.
The largest number of cervical diseases is erosion of this organ. However, the doctor must make sure the diagnosis is correct, eliminating the likelihood of a simple focal inflammation, often found on the surface of the uterine neck. Patients should remember two basic rules: examination (initial examination) should be carried out exclusively through a colposcope, and an incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment leads to the development of cancer.
Since there are several methods for taking a puncture, the procedure may differ depending on the method chosen. If the doctor will do the operation in his own office, you will need to sit in the gynecological chair, as during a routine examination. To see the cervix, the gynecologist will insert a mirror into the vagina, direct a bright ray of light at the organ and gently take a tissue sample.
The doctor will send suspicious tissue sites for further investigation (the process is called “cervical histology”). The procedure will take no more than half an hour, after which the patient can go home. If a biopsy is performed in the hospital, it is likely that the patient will not be able to immediately return to their relatives – hospitalization for 1-2 days is required. The procedure will take 40-90 minutes, including anesthesia.
The operation may seem painful, then before taking the puncture the doctor makes an anesthetic injection. If necessary, the patient will receive a local anesthetic injection, which will reduce pain during a biopsy and curettage of the cervical canal. Operation in a hospital involves the use of anesthesia, so that the procedure is as comfortable and painful as possible. It could be:
- general anesthesia;
- epidural analgesia;
- spinal anesthesia.
Possible complications and consequences after surgery
A frequent complication after surgery is bleeding, but this problem is eliminated after 5-10 days by the body on its own, subject to the doctor’s recommendations. If you do not follow the instructions of the gynecologist regarding personal hygiene, infection of the area from which the puncture was taken may occur. Symptoms of infection – fever, purulent discharge with blood clots from the vagina, pain in the lower abdomen. If you have one or more signs of infection, contact a gynecology department immediately.