New generation antibiotics: pros and cons
Antibiotics are substances of biological or semi-synthetic origin. They are used in medical practice to combat pathogenic microbes and viruses. Before the appearance of these medications, the status of incurable diseases was in typhoid fever, dysentery, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Today, the treatment of infectious diseases is possible with the use of 1-6 generation of antibiotics.
At this time, the pharmaceutical industry produces more than 2000 varieties of drugs of this type. Doctors described the action of about 600 positions, and in medical practice, about 120-160 drugs are used.
Important! For any illness, it is recommended to take antibiotics after consulting a doctor. Otherwise, antibiotic resistance may develop (a decrease in the sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to antibacterial agents).
Classification of antibiotics
All antibacterial agents can be divided into 5 categories according to their characteristics and range of applications. Let’s consider this classification in more detail:
Mechanism of action:
Bactericidal – the active substances of the preparations completely destroy bacteria and viruses. After taking such strong drugs, all the pathogenic microflora in the human body dies.
Bacteriostatic – inhibit the growth or spread of viruses. Thus, the cells remain “alive” without forming pathogenic flora.
Spectrum of action
There are antibacterial agents:
A wide range of effects – they are prescribed for diseases of an infectious nature with an unexplained cause of malaise. These are bactericidal medicines, since they destroy all pathogenic flora.
Narrow range of action – destroy gram-positive bacteria (enterococci, listeria). After taking them, gram-negative pathogens of infectious diseases also die: Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Proteus, etc. This group also includes anti-tuberculosis, antineoplastic, antifungal agents.
Antibacterial drugs are divided into 6 groups:
Penicillins are the first antimicrobial drugs obtained back in 1928 from a biological substance (Penicillium fungi). Long remained the most popular drug for the treatment of infectious diseases.
Cephalosporins – belong to the group of the most powerful antimicrobial agents with a wide range of applications. They completely destroy the pathogenic flora, are well tolerated by humans.
Macrolides are the name of a group of narrow range antimicrobial agents. They do not destroy the diseased cell, but only stop its growth. This category includes such drugs: erythromycin, spiramycin, azithromycin.
Tetracyclines are good drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases of the respiratory as well as urinary tract.
Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents with a wide range of effects. They completely destroy pathogenic microorganisms. On sale you can find 1-2 generation medicines. Usually doctors attribute them to fight Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Aminoglycosides are antimicrobial drugs with a wide range of applications. Popular drugs in this group – streptomycin (therapy for tuberculosis, plague) and gentamicin – are used as ointment, eye drops, injections for ophthalmic infections.
Generations of drugs. There are already six generations of advanced antimicrobial drugs. For example, penicillin was the first natural remedy, while the third or sixth generation is already an improved version that includes the strongest inhibitors. The dependence is direct: the newer the generation, the more effective the effect of drugs on the pathogenic microflora.
By the method of reception. Oral – taken by mouth. These are various syrups, tablets, dissolving capsules, suspensions. Parenteral – administered intravenously or intramuscularly. They are more effective than oral medications. Rectal preparations are injected into the rectum.
Important! Taking antibiotics is allowed only after consulting a doctor, otherwise antibiotic resistance will develop.