According to the definition, penicillin is a drug component and the active substance of a large group of antibiotics, which are called penicillins. Today, natural, semi-synthetic, aminopenicillins and drugs with a wide antibacterial effect are isolated. All funds are divided into tablets and injections, are produced by many companies.
Penicillin is the first antibiotic that was obtained due to the vital activity of microbes. In 1928, Fleming isolated it from a strain of the fungus Penicillium notatum. The first antibacterial agent was used in 1941. In the Soviet Union, penicillin-based drugs were obtained in 1942, and mass production was launched in the late 1950s. To date, they use protected penicillins with a wide spectrum of action.
The active component is the acid from which the salts are derived. Antibiotics may include benzylpenicillin. Biosynthetic penicillins are effective against strains of neisseria, staphylococcus, rods, rickettsia. The effectiveness of the drug is not proven against pathogens of dysentery, typhoid, tularemia, brucellosis, cholera, plague, tuberculosis, fungi, viruses and protozoa.
The most effective method of using penicillin antibiotics is intramuscular injection. After half an hour, the maximum concentration is detected in the blood. The active component penetrates into the muscles, joint cavities, wound exudate. In a small amount, penicillin is found in the cerebrospinal, pleural fluid, and abdominal cavity. The drug penetrates the placenta, excreted by the kidneys, with urine and bile. Tablets are poorly absorbed, because part of the dose is destroyed by gastric juice and beta-lactamases secreted by intestinal microflora.
Indications for use
Penicillin-based antibiotics are prescribed for diseases caused by bacteria sensitive to it. The instruction includes the following:
- focal pneumonia;
- empyema of pleura;
- acute and subacute forms of septic endocarditis;
- acute and chronic osteomyelitis;
- diseases of the biliary, urinary tract, skin, soft tissues, mucous membranes with purulent manifestations;
- scarlet fever;
- purulent-inflammatory gynecological diseases;
- eye diseases;
- syphilis, gonorrhea.
Dosage and administration
Instructions for use Penicillin differs depending on the form of release of funds. So, tablets are taken orally, injections are done intramuscularly. With an overdose of drugs, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting may develop. With renal failure and intravenous administration of the potassium salt of penicillin, hyperkalemia can develop. When taking doses of funds above 50 million units, epilepsy occurs. To eliminate it, the use of barbiturates, benzodiazepines will help.
Before using penicillin, tests should be performed to determine antibiotic sensitivity. Other special instructions from the instructions:
Funds are prescribed with caution in case of impaired renal function, acute heart failure, a tendency to allergies, pronounced sensitivity to cephalosporins.
If after 3-5 days of treatment the patient does not feel better, it is important to consult a doctor for revising therapy in favor of combination or other antibiotics.
During treatment, fungal superinfection may develop. Antifungal drugs will help to cope with it. When taking subtherapeutic doses of the drug or incomplete course, pathogens can acquire resistance (resistance).
Tablets are washed down with a large amount of liquid. Therapy should not deviate from the scheme, be accompanied by an independent change in dosage and skipping doses. If you miss a pill, take the following as soon as possible.
An expired medicine means it has become toxic.
During treatment with penicillins, alcohol is strictly prohibited.
The use of an antibiotic during pregnancy is permitted if the benefits for the mother exceed the risks for the baby. During lactation, the use of penicillin is prohibited.
Penicillin for children
Penicillin-based antibiotics are used in children only with strict medical indications with great care. During treatment, constant monitoring of the blood picture, the work of the liver, and kidneys is required. The risk of taking medications is associated with an insufficient study of the effectiveness and safety of work in patients of younger children and adolescents.