Some people consider antibiotics to be the only reliable medicine, reaching out for the coveted pill box for any reason: runny nose, cough, sore throat, the first symptoms of a cold. Especially often, pediatricians observe attempts by parents to cure the child in a short time, using exclusively antibiotics for this. Is it worth coughing such a medicine and how to do it right?
When is antibiotic cough treatment required?
Already in the name of the pharmacological group lies the meaning of the action and the main indication for the purpose. Antibiotics are substances of natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic origin that inhibit the growth of living cells, mainly bacteria. They are not afraid of viruses, although some large ones can be affected by a tetracycline. Antibiotics have 2 main functions:
- bactericidal – the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms;
- bacteriostatic – the cessation of the growth and reproduction of bacteria.
Some varieties of antibiotics are used as cytostatics: drugs that suppress the growth of malignant cells, but even this does not make them a universal medicine. It makes sense to affect the cough with antibiotics only if it is bacterial, which is characteristic of the following diseases:
- pneumonia – pneumonia, coughing, long-term cough, with abundant separation of sputum;
- tuberculosis – a serious infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, the symptoms depend on the form of the disease, may include hemoptysis in the later stages, fever (fever);
- whooping cough – characterized by a convulsive lingering cough;
- bacterial bronchitis – accompanied by prolonged asphyxiation of coughing;
- tonsillitis – inflammation of the tonsils, cough, wet and dry;
- purulent tracheitis – begins with a dry cough, turning into wet with the release of pus;
- pleurisy – accompanied by pain in the chest, shortness of breath, dry cough.
The doctor may recommend adding antibiotics to the main treatment regimen for a viral disease if a complication of a bacterial infection occurs. With mechanical damage to the respiratory system and the allergic nature of the cough, there is no sense in such drugs. In addition, experts remind you that you cannot prescribe antibiotics for yourself at the first symptoms of malaise, when there is no accurate diagnosis (laboratory and instrumental studies have not been conducted): entrust this question to the doctor.
Types of Antibiotics
The choice of the drug is based on laboratory tests that help identify the causative agent of the disease. Antibiotics with a strong cough, which accompanies the separation of sputum, are truly easier to pick up, since you can pass it on the flora and determine the sensitivity to specific groups of drugs. Often when coughing, the following groups are used:
Penicillin row. Mainly with clavulonic acid, for resistance to beta-lactamases. Recommended for bronchitis, home treatment for pneumonia. Penicillins have a wide spectrum of action, are the most prescribed antibiotics, inhibitor-protected are allowed during pregnancy, but can cause severe allergic reactions.
Cephalosporins. In acute bronchitis, pneumonia. They have greater resistance to beta-lactamases than penicillins, less likely to cause allergies, but can disrupt the process of hematopoiesis. Used parenterally (injection) and orally.
Sulfonamides. For allergies to beta-lactams. They are bacteriostatic, with low doses or short treatment they provoke the appearance of pathogen strains resistant to them, and most of the existing bacteria today already have resistance (immunity), which makes them not the most effective drugs.
Fluoroquinolones. With the appearance of purulent sputum, complications in the lungs, respiratory chlamydia. Chemically, they are not antibiotics, but are close to them by the principle of action, have pronounced antimicrobial activity, and are highly effective against tuberculosis mycobacteria. They are characterized by high toxicity to the kidneys and the fetus, therefore, are prohibited during pregnancy.
Antibiotics for coughing in adults
The clinical picture of bacterial diseases is not always specific, therefore it is advisable to consult a doctor for diagnosis, but for a few symptoms, you can suggest whether you need antibiotics for coughing:
- active progression of the disease even with prolonged treatment with antiviral agents;
- swollen lymph nodes (especially cervical and submandibular);
- shortness of breath, respiratory failure;
- discharge of purulent mucus from the nasal passages;
- cough with a separation of viscous sputum, which has a yellow-green tint;
- apparent intoxication and / or febrile syndrome;
- Pertussis-like attacks are observed (indicate respiratory chlamydia);
Rules for taking antibiotics
With prolonged treatment (especially in a child), the doctor should prescribe in parallel a course of probiotics and prebiotics that protect the intestinal microflora from dysbiosis, and in some situations, antihistamines. For the same purpose, it is important to clarify before a meal or after you need to drink medicine. A few more nuances:
Clearly observe the time interval established by the instructions or by the doctor between doses of the drug. For a two-time it is 12 hours, for a three-time – 8 hours.
Antibiotics for coughing do not work immediately: the effectiveness can be evaluated only after 72 hours. In the absence of positive dynamics, the correction of the therapeutic regimen is carried out with a specialist.
Do not change the dosage recommended by the doctor and the duration of treatment at your own discretion: this is dangerous. Antibiotics for a prolonged cough with a severe course of the disease often drink up to 2 weeks (maximum period), and for milder forms of infection – 5 days (minimum period).
Antibiotics of the beta-lactam group require nutritional correction: a ban is placed on muffins, milk, juices, sweets – these products reduce the effectiveness of treatment.
Ready-made suspensions should be used immediately, although some preparations allow weekly storage (when taken orally – not by injection).