Cervical erosion – causes and symptoms

Cervical erosion – causes and symptoms

One of the common diseases in gynecology is cervical erosion. The pathological process is asymptomatic for a long time. Women learn about the existence of a health problem during a routine examination by a gynecologist. According to statistics, 50% of the fairer sex are faced with this disease, so it is important to know what are the causes of the ailment.

What is cervical erosion

This is a pathological process, which is accompanied by the formation of small ulcers on the mucous membrane. Such a defect of the squamous epithelium of the vaginal zone, noticeable during an instrumental examination by a gynecologist, requires medical supervision. Among the risk factors, doctors distinguish the course of the inflammatory process of the reproductive system, the formation of polyps, cystic neoplasms. With proper treatment, scar erosion does not remain.

Causes of cervical erosion

The etiology of the pathological process remains unclear to the end. Gynecologists identify several theories why every second woman of reproductive age is diagnosed with cervical erosion. Below are a number of potential reasons:

  • The inflammatory process in the reproductive system. The specified pathology is accompanied by increased secretion of the glands of the cervical epithelium, inflammation of the ovaries or appendages, cystitis progresses.
  • Early sex life. The likelihood of a secondary infection joining against the background of the not yet fully formed mucous membrane of the female genital organs (the formation process ends by 20–23 years).
  • Mechanical damage. In this case, we are talking about previous abortions, curettage, childbirth with gaps, rough sexual contact, frequent changes in sexual partners (vaginal dysbiosis).
  • Genital infections Erosion develops against the background of increased activity of trichomonads, gonococci, HPV, ureaplasma, chlamydia, toxoplasma, candida, genital herpes.
  • Endocrine Disorders A woman has a hormonal failure, the menstrual cycle is violated against the background of the use of steroids, acute estrogen deficiency, age-related changes in the body, dishormonal disorders.
  • Decreased immune response of the female body. The weakening of the immune system is associated with age-related characteristics or becomes a consequence of an illness.
  • Anatomical features of the reproductive system. A woman can be diagnosed with a pathological eversion of the mucous membrane of the lower part of the cervix (ectropion).

Gynecologists identify a number of provoking factors that precede the onset of the disease. Among those:

  • frequent douching, violating the vaginal microflora;
  • improper implantation of the contraceptive spiral;
  • overweight, obesity;
  • previous surgery, for example, removal of polyps;
  • the use of additional devices (“toys”) during sexual contact;
  • chronic diseases of the reproductive system, sluggish inflammatory processes.

Types of cervical erosion

Depending on the degree of damage to the epithelium, doctors distinguish a mild, moderate, severe degree of the disease. Given the stage and condition of the pathological process, the following classification is given:

  • Congenital erosion. More often progresses in adolescence, disappears on its own without additional medical involvement. Very rarely degenerates into a malignant tumor. The causes of the disease remain unclear, it is possible that they were laid in the period of fetal development of the fetus (girls).
  • True erosion. Under the influence of physiological and pathological factors, the epithelium is desquamated, the site of inflammation is rapidly progressing. When diagnosed, erosion has a deep red color, bleeds, becomes a cause of discomfort and an attack of pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Pseudo-erosion. The epithelium is replaced by a cylindrical epithelium, the boundaries of which are displaced beyond the external pharynx. Symptoms of pathology in most clinical cases are absent, but doctors do not exclude pain during intercourse, blood flow from the vagina.


It is important for each patient to know the causes of cervical erosion in nulliparous and giving birth women to eliminate the risk of developing potential complications. It is important to study the symptoms of the disease in order to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis at the first manifestations and proceed to treatment:

  • purulent-bloody discharge, which may appear after sexual intercourse;
  • drawing pains in the lower abdomen;
  • vernal discharge;
  • burning, pain, itching when urinating;
  • vaginal dryness and discomfort during sexual intercourse.


If cervical erosion is suspected, doctors prescribe a comprehensive examination in a hospital. It is very important to differentiate the disease correctly, determine the cause of the occurrence. First of all, the gynecologist conducts an instrumental examination, assesses the status of the epithelium, visualizes the presence of ulcers. According to the results, the doctor prescribes laboratory tests:

  • colposcopy;
  • biopsies to exclude progressive oncology (cancer);
  • studying a smear from the vagina for the detection of pathogenic flora;
  • laboratory blood tests;
  • PCR tests for infections;
  • cytological examination;
  • sowing on the bacterial flora.

Cervical erosion treatment

The approach to the health problem is complex. To eliminate the causes and treatment, the patient’s age, the stage of the pathological process, the presence of secondary infections and inflammatory processes, chronic diseases of children born are taken into account. The scheme of complex therapy is determined based on the variety of erosion:

  1. Congenital erosion is not treated. The patient is at risk, therefore, should be regularly observed by a gynecologist. It is possible that such a problem will soon disappear on its own.
  2. True erosion and pseudo-erosion are treated simultaneously with the diseases that provoked the appearance of bleeding ulcers on the epithelium. Otherwise, there is no positive dynamics.


If the cause of the pathology is not determined and eliminated in a timely manner, erosion increases in size, captures healthy tissues, and leads to irreversible consequences in the woman’s reproductive system. Potential complications:

  • deformation with further scar formation;
  • diagnosed infertility;
  • accession of a secondary infection;
  • menstrual irregularities;
  • the onset of cancer (the development of cancer cells);
  • inflammatory processes of the appendages, ovaries.

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