Many women experience vaginal dysbiosis, which is manifested by copious discharge with a sharp unpleasant odor. The disease is accompanied by constant discomfort, burning in the genital area. Bacterial vaginitis is treated with candles, tablets, which have a bactericidal effect on conditionally pathogenic vaginal microorganisms.
What is bacterial vaginitis?
A common gynecological disease in which the vaginal microflora changes – bacterial vaginosis, every third woman suffers from it. This is not an inflammatory ailment. Mushrooms, gonococci and other pathogens are not found in the secretions. A change in the balance of bacteria takes place: conditionally pathogenic microflora increases, and the number of lactic acid bacteria decreases. This provokes a decrease in the protective barrier of the vagina, creates a suitable background for the development of inflammatory diseases of the uterus.
Bactericidal vaginitis can be asymptomatic for a long time, in which case a bacterial disease is detected at a routine examination by a gynecologist. Depending on the cause of vaginal colpitis, the disease can manifest itself with different symptoms:
- copious, with an unpleasant odor of discharge;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- white discharge, sometimes with an admixture of blood;
- redness of the vaginal mucosa;
- burning sensation during urination;
- discomfort during intercourse;
- itching of the external genitalia and inside the vagina.
With atrophic colpitis, the first sign of the disease is the appearance of vaginal discharge. They are characterized by the smell of rotten fish, which intensifies after sexual intercourse without the use of a condom. Acute inflammation is accompanied by abundant vaginal discharge. Basically, they are white, uniform in consistency. If the duration of the bacterial disease is more than two years, yellow-green leaks with an admixture of blood may be observed.
Gardnerella vaginalis is a type of anaerobic bacteria that are the main causative agent of bacterial vaginosis. They are not dangerous for men. Representatives of the stronger sex, in which gardnerella was discovered, are considered healthy, vaginitis is a female disease. Girls whose sexual partners are carriers of bacteria do not need to treat vaginosis in the absence of complaints about their health.
The disease occurs when the balance of opportunistic microbes and lactobacilli in the vaginal microflora is disturbed. The number of the latter increases, which is a factor in the development of bacterial colpitis. The reasons why there is a change in the ratio of microorganisms in the female genital area:
- non-compliance with vaginal hygiene rules;
- taking antibiotics, steroids;
- taking hormonal drugs;
- wearing wet or tight underwear;
- frequent change of intimate partners;
- reduced immunity;
- sexually transmitted infections;
- the use of deodorants for the vagina;
- the use of oral contraceptives;
Bacterial vaginitis during pregnancy
Inflammation of the vaginal mucosa is often found in pregnant women at different times. The occurrence of the disease does not depend on its presence in the history of the disease. Ignoring the ailment or improper treatment of bacterial vaginitis can lead to complications of pregnancy and developmental pathologies of the child, up to premature birth and subsequent infertility. Drugs are prescribed depending on the stage of Trichomonas colpitis and gestational age. The main cause of the disease in such cases is immunodeficiency.
Stages and types
Many women live with trichomonas vaginitis without suspecting it. The initial stage is asymptomatic, sometimes itching occurs, a delay in menstruation is possible. During this period, a high probability of colonization of the vaginal microflora with microorganisms of the environment. At the second stage, there is a decrease in lactobacilli, a gram-variable environment increases, and leukocytosis is moderate. The decompensated stage of chronic inflammation is characterized by the absence of lactobacilli, acute manifestations of symptoms, various combinations of microorganisms are located in the microflora.
There are several areas of the disease. Depending on the origin of the causative agent of vaginal inflammation, the following types of disease are distinguished:
- Specific bacterial vaginosis. Changes in microflora occur due to the presence in the vagina of several types of pathogens. The causative agents of a specific form of the disease include Trichomonas, gonococcus, genital mycoplasma.
- Nonspecific bacterial colpitis. Appears due to the active growth of pathogenic bacteria in the vagina. Nonspecific infection occurs during pregnancy, with a decrease in the body’s levels of progesterone, testosterone and estrogen, with the active reproduction of candida albicans (candida vaginitis), yeast.
Atrophic vaginitis cannot be diagnosed only after a gynecological examination. To determine the disease, it is necessary to study the smell and composition of the smear from the vagina. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis can be made with symptoms:
- decreased acidity of the vagina;
- specific discharge;
- positive test for aminotest;
- the presence of mature epithelial cells, on the surface of which microbes are attached in large numbers.
An effective treatment is to stop the development of pathogenic microorganisms, restore normal vaginal microflora, and prevent relapse of the disease. At the time of therapy, it is recommended to exclude sexual contacts, treatment of partners is carried out simultaneously. The best way to treat the manifestations of the disease are topical drugs with a bactericidal effect. Doctors prescribe drugs from the group of nitroimidazoles, used intravaginally in the form of tablets, ointments, tampons or suppositories, they show high efficiency.
For irrigation use a solution of nitroimidazoles and hydrogen peroxide. One of the best medicines for the treatment of thrush is Metronidazole. The use of tablets can cause side effects in the form of disruption of the stomach, headache. Recovery will be faster if, in addition to the specific therapy for vaginitis, the patient follows a diet. It is necessary to exclude flour, sweet, fatty and salty dishes from the diet. The duration of treatment depends on the stage and type of vaginosis.
Treating the disease is not a very pleasant pastime, therefore, it is recommended to carry out preventive procedures to avoid vaginitis. To prevent the appearance of vaginitis of the vagina, the following rules should be followed:
- Follow the rules of personal hygiene. You need to regularly wash yourself, directing your movements from front to back.
- Avoid wearing tight and synthetic underwear. It impairs blood circulation in the pelvic organs, which leads to disturbances in the vaginal microflora.
- Avoid eating large amounts of fatty and sugary foods.
- Do not use daily pads. They prevent the flow of a sufficient amount of oxygen to the genitals, because of this, vaginal diseases can develop.